COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions

Last revision November 10, 2021

Vaccine registration is available to Hawaii residents who are 5 years or older.

Clinics and pods have their own registration sites which can be found here.

Acronyms and abbreviations used:

  • CDC: US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
  • COVID-19: Coronavirus Disease 2019
  • EUA: Emergency Use Authorization
  • FDA: US Food & Drug Administration
  • HDOH: State of Hawaii Department of Health
  • VAERS: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

The COVID-19 vaccine is a national public health priority purchased with U.S. taxpayer dollars and is offered at no cost. However, vaccination providers will be able to charge an administration fee for giving the shot to someone. Vaccine providers can get this fee reimbursed by the patient’s public or private insurance company or, for uninsured patients, by the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Provider Relief Fund.

The Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines require two shots to be effective. The shots are spaced out by a number of weeks and you will be alerted when to get your second shot. If you have had your first shot, you will automatically be eligible to get the second shot when it is due.

Johnson and Johnson’s Janssen vaccine only requires one shot to be effective.

Yes. Although the initial supply was limited, many doses continue to be made and everyone in Hawaii will eventually be able to get vaccinated.

HDOH will share this information in a variety of ways as more vaccines become available. You may hear from your healthcare provider, your employer, announcements from state and local leaders, or the media. HDOH maintains the latest information on the vaccine’s status in Hawaii at

As of August 11, 2021: Pregnant and recently pregnant people with COVID-19 are at increased risk for severe illness when compared with non-pregnant people. Pregnant people with COVID-19 are at increased risk for preterm birth and might be at increased risk for other adverse pregnancy complications and outcomes, such as preeclampsia, coagulopathy, and stillbirth. A growing body of evidence on the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination – in both animal and human studies – indicates that the benefits of vaccination outweigh any known or potential risks of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy.

COVID-19 vaccines do not cause infection in the pregnant person or the fetus: The currently FDA-emergency use authorized COVID-19 vaccines (i.e., mRNA vaccines and a non-replicating viral vector vaccine) are not live vaccines and cannot cause infection in either the pregnant person or the fetus.

If you are pregnant or breastfeeding and you are part of a group that is recommended to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, it is recommended by the CDC to get vaccinated. HDOH is currently looking to CDC guidance when it comes to pregnancy and receiving the COVID-19 vaccine.

Other things to consider:

  • COVID-19 risks of severe illness or adverse outcomes are known to be higher for pregnant women and their fetuses.
  • You should talk to your healthcare provider you are seeing for your pregnancy care to discuss whether or not to get a COVID-19 vaccine.
  • Getting the vaccine is a personal decision.

You can learn more about vaccines for pregnant women at this CDC site: and here.

The COVID-19 vaccines continue to be studied in various age groups. So far, only the Pfizer vaccine has been approved for those who are ages 5 and older. The Moderna and the Johnson and Johnson vaccine are approved for those who are 18 years and older. Information will be made public as it becomes available in the coming year.

At this time there is not enough information to say if or how long after infection someone is protected from getting COVID-19 again through “natural immunity.” Early evidence suggests natural immunity from COVID-19 may not last very long, but more studies are needed to better understand this. At least one vaccine has been studied in persons with a prior COVID-19 infection and found to be safe. CDC and HDOH recommend that vaccination should be offered to persons regardless of history of prior COVID-19 infection.

There is no recommended minimum wait time between infection and vaccination, current evidence suggests that reinfection is uncommon in the 90 days after initial infection. So, persons who had COVID-19 in the past 90 days may choose to wait to be vaccinated until near the end of 90 days, if they want to do so.

No one should be vaccinated while they are currently sick with a COVID-19 infection. Vaccinating should be postponed until the person has no more symptoms and criteria have been met for them to discontinue isolation.

Right now, there are three COVID-19 vaccines. COVID-19 Pfizer BioNTech Vaccine, COVID-19 Moderna Vaccine, and Johnson and Johnson Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. These are the only vaccines that will protect against COVID-19 at this time. However, it is important to also get your annual flu shot during the COVID-19 pandemic. An influenza vaccine (“flu shot”) will not protect you from getting COVID-19, but it may provide several individual health benefits, such as keeping you from getting sick with the flu, reducing the severity of your illness if you do get the flu, and reducing your risk of hospitalization because of the flu. Flu vaccination is very important to keep you healthy and to keep our clinics and hospitals from being overwhelmed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Yes. You can get a COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines at the same visit. You no longer need to wait 14 days between vaccinations. Experience with other vaccines has shown that the way our bodies develop protection, known as an immune response, after getting vaccinated and possible side effects of vaccines are generally the same when given alone or with other vaccines. Learn more about the timing of other vaccines.

You are considered fully vaccinated after you have received the full dose of your vaccine and it has been 2 weeks.

For example: you have received both doses of a 2-dose series, like the Pfizer or Moderna and it has been 2 weeks since your second dose


you have received your single-dose vaccine, like Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen vaccine, and it has been 2 weeks.

The protection someone gains from having an infection (called “natural immunity”) varies depending on the disease, and it varies from person to person. The virus causing COVID-19 is new, so we don’t know how long natural immunity for COVID-19 might last.

Some early evidence—based on some people—seems to suggest that natural immunity may only last up to 90 days. Regarding COVID-19 vaccine, we don’t know how long immunity lasts until we have more data on how well they work.

Experts are working hard to learn more about COVID-19, including natural immunity and immunity from vaccines, and CDC and HDOH will let the public know as new evidence becomes available and recommendations change.

Clinical trials for the COVID-19 vaccines have found that in general, most people do not have serious problems after being vaccinated.

At this time, the side effect that some people have had is a severe allergic reaction to the vaccine. If you know you are allergic to any ingredient in one of the vaccines, you should not get that vaccine. If you know you have allergies, but don’t know if you are allergic to an ingredient in the vaccines talk to your provider or the provider offering you the vaccine before getting vaccinated. Some common but temporary side effects may be soreness, redness, or warmth in the arm where they got the shot. These symptoms usually go away on their own within a week. Some people report getting a headache or fever after receiving a vaccine.

These side effects are signs that your immune system is working as it should, to build protection against the disease for which you’re being vaccinated.
Because each vaccine will have different side effects, it is important that you learn about the specific vaccine you are offered when it’s your turn. Talk to your provider or the provider offering you the vaccine and ask questions before getting vaccinated.

  • Of the nearly seven million people who have received the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine in the U.S., six women between the ages of 18 and 48 experienced a type of blood clot called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in combination with low levels of blood platelets (thrombocytopenia). 
  • The symptoms in these women occurred between 6 to 13 days after getting the J&J COVID vaccine.
  • One woman has died, and one woman is in critical condition.
  • The FDA, CDC, and CDC’s independent expert committee (Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices) are all reviewing these cases and determining next steps.
  • There are no concerns about CVST in people who receive the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines.
  • CVST is treated differently than other blood clots. Usually, heparin is administered to people experiencing blood clots, but that can be dangerous to people with CVST. Both FDA and CDC, along with partners across the country, are working alert healthcare providers and the public about this difference in treatment.

It is important to remember this adverse effect after getting the J&J COVID-19 vaccine is very rare. Less than 1 in one million people have experienced CVST in combination with low levels of blood platelets after receiving the J&J vaccine.

If you received the J&J COVID-19 vaccine within the last three weeks (as of April 12, 2021), know the warning signs of CVST. They include severe headache, abdominal pain, leg pain, and/or shortness of breath. If you experience any of these symptoms, please contact your healthcare provider or seek medical attention immediately.

Note that it is common to experience mild to moderate symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue and joint/muscle pain, during the first week after receiving any COVID-19 vaccine. These side effects usually start within three days of getting a vaccine and should only last a few days.

The FDA and CDC recommended the pause in the use of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine out of an abundance of caution. During this time they will be reviewing the data from the six cases and working with partners to help healthcare providers learn the signs and proper treatment of CVST in combination with low blood platelets.

It is also important to know this is a recommended pause, not a mandate. Some vaccination sites may still be administering J&J COVID-19 vaccines while the investigation is underway. You should have a conversation with your healthcare provider to determine if the J&J vaccine is the right choice for you until we hear an update on the situation from FDA or CDC.

  • You may gather indoors with unvaccinated people from one other household (for example, visiting relatives who all live together) without masks, unless any of those people or anyone they live with has an increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19.
  • If you have been around someone who has COVID-19, you do not need to stay away from others or get tested unless you have symptoms.
    • However, if you live in a group setting (like a correctional or detention facility or group home) and are around someone who has COVID-19, you should still stay away from others for 14 days and get tested, even if you don’t have symptoms.

For more information, visit this CDC website.

Yes, you should still protect yourself and others by wearing a mask, staying at least 6 feet apart from others not in your household, and avoiding crowds and poorly ventilated spaces. Take these steps when you are:

  • In a public, indoor space. If you are outdoors, you do not have to wear a mask as long as you keep a 6 feet distance from others who are not in your household
  • Gathering with unvaccinated people from more than one other household
  • Visiting with an unvaccinated person who is at increased risk of severe illness or death from COVID-19 or who lives with a person at increased risk

You should continue to avoid medium or large-sized gatherings, delay domestic and international travel, and watch for symptoms of COVID-19. If you have symptoms of COVID-19, you should get tested and quarantine at home.

*You still need to follow guidance at your workplace.

Although you are fully vaccinated, we recommend that you continue to wear a face mask when you are gathering with unvaccinated people from more than one household, whether or not you’re indoors or outdoors. When you are in close contact with people from more than one household, we encourage you to wear a mask, stay at least 6 feet apart, and avoid crowds and poorly ventilated spaces. You still need to follow guidance at your workplace.

Yes, you should still watch out for symptoms of COVID-19, especially if you have been around someone who is sick. If you experience COVID-19 symptoms, such as shortness of breath, loss of taste or smell, nausea and vomiting, or diarrhea, contact your health care provider.

Experts are still learning how long COVID-19 vaccines can protect people as well as how effective the vaccines are against variants of the virus that causes COVID-19. Early data shows that the vaccines may keep people from spreading COVID-19, but we are continuing to learn as more people get vaccinated. What we know is that other safe practices are important to continue as they help to stop the spread of COVID-19; you should continue to practice physical distancing, mask wearing, and hand washing, even as vaccines are being distributed. For now, let’s celebrate the normalcy that the vaccines are giving us by gathering in small private groups.

If you and your family do not have a high-risk of getting COVID-19 (i.e. do not have any severe medical conditions that would put you at high-risk), you may visit your fully vaccinated family members. Remember to keep gatherings small to avoid increasing your risk of contracting COVID-19.

CDC and FDA encourage the public to report possible side effects (“adverse events”) through VAERS (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System) and V-safe.

An “adverse event” is any health problem that happens after a shot or other vaccine. An adverse event might be truly caused by a vaccine, or it might be pure coincidence (something that happened after vaccination but not caused by the vaccine).

One of the main jobs of CDC’s Immunization Safety Office is doing research to find out if adverse events that are reported by doctors, vaccine manufacturers, and the public are truly caused by a vaccine.

  • VAERS on the Internet

VAERS is a national system that collects data to look for side effects (“adverse events”) that are unexpected, appear to happen more often than expected, or occur in unusual patterns. CDC uses VAERS to monitor the safety of vaccines across the country, which is a top priority. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) can be found at the following website:

  • V-safe on your smartphone

You can also use a tool on your smartphone, called V-safe, to tell CDC about any side effects you have after getting the COVID-19 vaccine. V-safe will also provide you reminders if you need a second vaccine dose.
V-safe uses text messages and web surveys to provide personalized health check-ins after you receive a COVID-19 vaccination. Through V-safe, you can quickly tell CDC if you have any problems you experience after getting the COVID-19 vaccine. Depending on your answers, someone from CDC may call to check on you and get more information.

You can learn more about how to register and use V-safe at the following website:

You can learn more about the difference between routine side effects and adverse events at this CDC website:

An individual is considered to be fully vaccinated 14 days after his or her second dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine or 14 days after receiving his or her single-dose Johnson and Johnson vaccine.

After testing positive for COVID-19, you need to isolate for 10 days. At the end of 10 days, you need to be fever-free for 24 hours without the use of fever-reducing medicines and your symptoms need to be improving. If you still have symptoms after 10 days, you need to stay in isolation until your symptoms have improved. No repeat testing is necessary.

Click here to know see what to do if you test positive for COVID-19.

An individual is considered to be fully vaccinated 14 days after his or her second dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine or 14 days after receiving his or her single-dose Johnson and Johnson vaccine.

If you have been fully vaccinated and you are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19, you should tested as soon as possible. Additionally, you must quarantine until you receive your test results. If you are negative, you do not have to isolate. If you are positive, you need to isolate for 10 days. At the end of 10 days, you need to be fever-free for 24 hours without the use of fever-reducing medicines and your symptoms need to be improving. If you still have symptoms for longer than 10 days, you need to stay in isolation until your symptoms have improved.

In isolation:

  • Separate yourself from others in your household
  • Wear a mask even at home to protect others in your household
  • Notify anyone who you spent time with (from 2 days before you got sick) that you tested positive for COVID-19
  • Stay home except when getting medical care

Click here to see what you need to do if you get tested for COVID-19.

Click here to know what to do if you test positive for COVID-19.

An individual is considered to be fully vaccinated 14 days after his or her second dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine or 14 days after receiving his or her single-dose Johnson and Johnson vaccine.

If you have been fully vaccinated and are not experiencing any symptoms of COVID-19, you do not need to quarantine and you do not need to get tested. However, if you live or work in a correctional or detention facility or a homeless shelter, you should be tested, even if you are asymptomatic (have no symptoms). Additionally, you should monitor yourself for symptoms up until 14 days after exposure.

If the COVID-19 vaccine you received for your first dose requires a second dose, the second dose must be from the same manufacturer as your first. Receiving two different COVID-19 vaccines has not been studied for safety and effectiveness.

Example: If you received the Pfizer vaccine for your first dose, you must receive the Pfizer vaccine for your second; you cannot receive the Moderna or Johnson and Johnson vaccine for your second dose.

For more information about COVID-19, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website at You can also visit HDOH’s COVID-19 websites at and

Finally, you can contact HDOH’s partners at Aloha United Way from anywhere in Hawaii for information and referral services:

Vaccination FAQs for Children Ages 5-11

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine dosage for children age 5-11 is 10 micrograms, 1/3 the dose used for adults and adolescents. 

The adult/adolescent vial has a purple cap and the pediatric vial has an orange cap. 

The adult dose of 30 mcg is diluted with 1.8 mL diluent. The pediatric dose of 10 mcg is diluted with 1.3 mL of diluent.  

  • Your child may have some side effects, which are normal signs that their body is building protection. 
  • On the arm where your child got the shot: 
  • – Pain 
  • – Redness 
  • – Swelling
  • Throughout the rest of your child’s body: 
  • – Tiredness 
  • – Headache 
  • – Muscle Pain 
  • – Chills 
  • – Fever 
  • – Nausea

Side effects may affect your child’s ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days. Some people have no side effects.  
Ask your child’s healthcare provider for advice on using a non-aspirin pain reliever and other steps you can take at home to comfort your child. It is not recommended you give pain relievers before vaccination for the purpose of trying to prevent side effect.

Although children are at a lower risk of becoming severely ill when infected with COVID-19 compared to adults, children can get very sick, have both short and long-term health complications, and spread COVID-19 to others. Children are more likely to be asymptomatic than adults and can spread it unknowingly to those who are at a higher risk of becoming severely ill.

Data about the vaccine’s duration of protection is not yet available. 

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given only the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine emergency use authorization for children ages 5 through 11. 

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine requires two injections given 21 days apart. The second dose can be given up to six weeks after the first dose, if needed.

In a clinical study of 3,082 5 to 11 year olds, no cases of myocarditis occurred. Myocarditis after vaccination in this population is likely lower than the rates seen in 12 to 15 year olds. The FDA and CDC have both looked extensively at the data and have determined that the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination outweigh the risks of myocarditis and other rare events after vaccination.  

It is not required that a pediatrician be on site at a child’s vaccination clinic. However, we encourage vaccine clinics to have one on site so that questions may be answered.  


Please call the Immunization Branch Vaccination Call Center at (808) 586-8332 or 1-833-711-0645